In a counter flow-cooling tower, the direction of the induced air is opposite to that of the water flow.
Air is drawn into an open area just below the fill media, which then moves vertically upwards.
The water then passes through the fill media, which increases the contact area, as well as the contact time between air and water which increases heat transfer.
In a cross, flow-cooling tower the induced air moves horizontally while the water falls vertically.
Water flows through the fill media, which increases the contact surface, are as well as the contact time between air and water for better heat transfer.
Crossflow is a design in which the airflow is directed perpendicular to the water flow. Air enters through one or more vertical faces of the cooling tower to meet the fill material. Water flows (perpendicular to the air) through the fill by gravity. The air continues through the fill and thus past the water flow into an open plenum volume. Lastly, a fan forces the moisture-laden air out into the atmosphere.
A distribution or a hot water basin consisting of holes or nozzles in its bottom is located near the top of a crossflow tower. Gravity distributes the water through the nozzles uniformly across the fill material.
The Hybrid cooling tower uses both air and water as a fluid for cooling purposes. Hybrid cooling towers also known as a cooling tower without a visible plume. The hybrid cooling tower is a wet cooling tower in which the process fluid is pre-cooled by air comes out of m evaporative cooling in finned coils.
In hybrid cooling towers, the plume is mixed with a dry, hot air stream prior to leaving the cooling tower. This airstream is generated in heat exchangers, the water to be cooled serve as the heating medium. No additional energy is therefore required to heat the air.
Air-cooled condensers eliminate the need for large volumes of water to do the cooling. The direct dry cooling option condenses the process fluid inside finned tubes, which are externally cooled by ambient air instead of sea or river water.
There are two options for circulating the ambient air for condensate cooling, either use fans to move the air or natural draft. Air Cooled Condensers are flexible and customized in A-frame or V-frame configuration. The finned tube bundles constitute the heart of an Air Cooled Condenser.
In the arid regions where water is scarce or in the countries where stringent environmental legislation does not allow the use of water, dry Cooling becomes the smart choice.
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